Location:Home » financial services » Content

gateway arch st. louis mo

Time:2019-06-18
Homepage

ALERT:Visitors must enter the monument through the new west entrance, which faces Fourth Street and the Old Courthouse. The Gateway Arch legs have become exits only. Tram tickets will sell out early and often - advance tickets are strongly recommended. Please allow at least 30 minutes to go through security.


The Gateway Arch (Saint Louis) | June 2019 | All You Need to Know BEFORE You Go (with Photos)

The Gateway Arch (Saint Louis) | June 2019 | All You Need to Know BEFORE You Go (with Photos)


Saint Louis TourismSaint Louis HotelsSaint Louis Bed and BreakfastSaint Louis Vacation RentalsSaint Louis Vacation PackagesFlights to Saint LouisSaint Louis RestaurantsThings to Do in Saint LouisSaint Louis Travel ForumSaint Louis PhotosSaint Louis MapSaint Louis Travel GuideAll Saint Louis HotelsSaint Louis Hotel DealsLast Minute Hotels in Saint LouisBy Hotel TypeSaint Louis MotelsSaint Louis HostelsSaint Louis Business HotelsSaint Louis Family HotelsRomantic Hotels in Saint LouisSaint Louis Green HotelsSaint Louis Luxury HotelsSaint Louis CasinosSaint Louis Spa ResortsBy Hotel Class5-star Hotels in Saint Louis4-star Hotels in Saint Louis3-star Hotels in Saint LouisBy Hotel BrandSuper 8 Hotels in Saint LouisSheraton Hotels in Saint LouisBest Western Hotels in Saint LouisMotel 6 Hotels in Saint LouisRed Roof Inns Hotels in Saint LouisEconoLodge Hotels in Saint LouisSonesta Hotels And Resorts in Saint LouisQuality Inn Hotels in Saint LouisDays Inn Hotels in Saint LouisMarriott Hotels in Saint LouisAmericas Best Value Inns Hotels in Saint LouisHoliday Inn Hotels in Saint LouisPopular AmenitiesSaint Louis Hotels with PoolsPet Friendly Hotels in Saint LouisSaint Louis Hotels with Free ParkingPopular NeighborhoodsDowntown Saint Louis HotelsGrand Center / Midtown HotelsForest Park HotelsThe Hill HotelsRiverfront HotelsLafayette Square HotelsPopular Saint Louis CategoriesHoneymoon Hotels in Saint LouisSaint Louis Hotels With Indoor PoolsSaint Louis Hotels with JacuzziSuite Hotels in Saint LouisSaint Louis Hotels with Smoking RoomsHotels with Shuttle in Saint LouisSaint Louis Hotels with RestaurantsSaint Louis Hotels with Room ServiceQuiet Hotels in Saint LouisUnique Hotels in Saint LouisNear LandmarksHotels near The Gateway ArchHotels near St. Louis ZooHotels near City MuseumHotels near Busch StadiumHotels near Missouri Botanical GardenHotels near Cathedral Basilica of Saint LouisHotels near Forest ParkHotels near Grant's FarmNear AirportsHotels near (STL) Lambert-St. Louis Intl AirportHotels near (BLV) Scott Air Force BaseAll Saint Louis RestaurantsRestaurants near The Gateway ArchAll things to do in Saint LouisThings to do near The Gateway ArchTravel GuidesAppsCruisesGreenLeadersRoad TripsSaint LouisSearch for "{0}" Cart 0PostTripsTip: All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips. InboxInbox See allLog in to get trip updates and message other travelers. ProfileJoinSearch Enter a destinationSearch Saint LouisHotelsThings to doRestaurantsFlightsVacation RentalsVacation PackagesCruisesNEWRental CarsTravel ForumAirlinesBest of 2019Road TripsHelp CenterLog inJoinRecently viewedBookingsInboxMore Help Center


Gateway Arch National Park (U.S. National Park Service)

Gateway to the WestThe Gateway Arch reflects St. Louis' role in the Westward Expansion of the United States during the nineteenth century. The park is a memorial to Thomas Jefferson's role in opening the West, to the pioneers who helped shape its history, and to Dred Scott who sued for his freedom in the Old Courthouse.


Gateway Arch, The

ALERT: Visitors must enter the monument through the new west entrance, which faces Fourth Street and the Old Courthouse. The Gateway Arch legs have become exits only. Tram tickets will sell out early and often - advance tickets are strongly recommended. Please allow at least 30 minutes to go through security. Standing 630 feet tall, the Gateway Arch, our nation's tallest man-made monument, anchors Gateway Arch National Park (formerly Jefferson National Expansion Memorial) and stands as the iconic monument symbolizing the westward expansion of the United States. Get your tickets online, by phone, or in person at the Gateway Arch ticket center located inside of the new west entrance. The Gateway Arch experience includes the Tram Ride to the Top of the Gateway Arch, the all new Museum at the Gateway Arch, Monument to the Dream documentary movie, shopping at the Arch Store, the Arch Cafe and cruises aboard the Riverboats at the Gateway Arch. TripAdvisor Rating11274 Reviews


Gateway Arch 1 N Leonor K Sullivan Blvd St Louis, MO Tourist Information

Sameera B. Great cruise!! I went on the cruise (tom sawyer one) today and it was 1 hour long and definitely worth the price. They have about 4 or 5 timings through the day and the first one starts at...


Here’s what it’s like inside St. Louis' Gateway Arch

發佈日期:2017年7月7日We took a trip to St. Louis’ Gateway Arch — the tallest man-made monument in the US. The arch is 630 feet high and its foundations are about 60 feet deep. It's made of 142 stainless steel sections, concrete, and structural steel. The monument honors Thomas Jefferson's Louisiana Purchase and St. Louis' role in westward expansion of the US. It's often called "the gateway to the west". -------------------------------------------------- Follow BI Video on Twitter: http://bit.ly/1oS68Zs


The Top 10 Things to Do Near The Gateway Arch, Saint Louis

The Top 10 Things to Do Near The Gateway Arch, Saint Louis


Saint LouisSearch for "{0}" PostTripsTip: All of your saved places can be found here in My Trips. InboxInbox See allLog in to get trip updates and message other travelers. ProfileJoinSearch Enter a destinationSearch Saint LouisHotelsThings to doRestaurantsFlightsVacation RentalsVacation PackagesCruisesNEWRental CarsTravel ForumAirlinesBest of 2019Road TripsHelp CenterLog inJoinRecently viewedBookingsInboxMore Help CenterThings to Do Near The Gateway Arch, Saint Louis, MOUnited States  Missouri (MO)  Saint Louis  Things to Do in Saint Louis  Things to do near The Gateway Arch


Gateway Arch

Gateway Arch


Gateway ArchAlternative namesGateway to the WestGateway to the MidwestSt. Louis ArchGeneral informationArchitectural styleStructural expressionism[1]Location100 Washington Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63102, U.S.Coordinates38°37′28″N 90°11′05″W / 38.62452°N 90.18471°W / 38.62452; -90.18471Coordinates: 38°37′28″N 90°11′05″W / 38.62452°N 90.18471°W / 38.62452; -90.18471Construction startedFebruary 12, 1963; 56 years ago (1963-02-12)CompletedOctober 28, 1965; 53 years ago (1965-10-28).InauguratedMay 25, 1968; 51 years ago (1968-05-25)Cost$13 million (c. $80.6 million in 2018[2])Height630 ft (192 m)DimensionsOther dimensions630 ft (192 m) widthDesign and constructionArchitectEero SaarinenArchitecture firmEero Saarinen and AssociatesStructural engineerSeverud AssociatesMain contractorMcddsaGateway ArchU.S. National Register of Historic PlacesU.S. National Historic LandmarkShow map of St. LouisShow map of MissouriShow map of the United StatesNRHP reference #87001423Significant datesAdded to NRHPMay 28, 1987[3]Designated NHLMay 28, 1987[4]The Gateway Arch is a 630-foot (192 m) monumentin St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Clad in stainless steel and built in the form of a weighted catenaryarch,[5]it is the world's tallest arch,[4]the tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere,[6]and Missouri's tallest accessible building. Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States,[5]and officially dedicated to "the American people," the Arch, commonly referred to as "The Gateway to the West" is the centerpiece of Gateway Arch National Parkand has become an internationally recognized symbol of St. Louis, as well as a popular tourist destination. The Arch was designed by Finnish-Americanarchitect Eero Saarinenin 1947; construction began on February 12, 1963 and was completed on October 28, 1965[7][8]at an overall cost of $13 million[9](equivalent to $80.6 million in 2018[2]). The monument opened to the public on June 10, 1967.[10]It is located at the site of St. Louis's founding on the west bank of the Mississippi River.[11][12][13] Contents1 Historical background1.1 Inception and funding (1933–1935)1.2 Initial planning (1936–1939)1.3 Design competition (1945–1948)1.4 Railroad agreement (1949–1958)1.5 Final preparations (1959–1968)2 Construction2.1 Delays and lawsuits2.2 Topping out and dedication2.3 After completion3 Characteristics3.1 Physical characteristics3.2 Mathematical elements3.3 Lighting4 Public access4.1 Visitor center4.2 Observation area4.2.1 Modes of ascent4.2.2 Incidents4.3 Stunts and accidents4.4 Security5 Symbolism and culture5.1 Awards and recognitions5.2 Cultural references6 Maintenance7 See also8 References9 Notes10 Bibliography11 External linksHistorical background[edit]See also: History of the Gateway Arch National ParkInception and funding (1933–1935)[edit]Around late 1933, civic leader Luther Ely Smith, returning to St. Louis from the George Rogers Clark National Historical Parkin Vincennes, Indiana, saw the St. Louis riverfront area and envisioned that building a memorial there would both revive the riverfront and stimulate the economy[14][15]He communicated his idea to mayor Bernard Dickmann, who on December 15, 1933, raised it in a meeting with city leaders. They sanctioned the proposal, and the nonprofit Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association (JNEMA—pronounced "Jenny May")[16]was formed. Smith was appointed chairman and Dickmann vice chairman. The association's goal was to create:[14] A suitable and permanent public memorial to the men who made possible the western territorial expansion of the United States, particularly President Jefferson, his aides Livingston and Monroe, the great explorers, Lewis and Clark, and the hardy hunters, trappers, frontiersmen and pioneers who contributed to the territorial expansion and development of these United States, and thereby to bring before the public of this and future generations the history of our development and induce familiarity with the patriotic accomplishments of these great builders of our country. Many locals did not approve of depleting public funds for the cause. Smith's daughter SaLees related that when "people would tell him we needed more practical things", he would respond that "spiritual things" were equally important.[16] The association expected that $30 million would be needed to undertake the construction of such a monument. It called upon the federal government to foot three-quarters of the bill ($22.5 million).[16] The St. Louis riverfront after demolitionThe suggestion to renew the riverfront was not original, as previous projects were attempted but lacked popularity. The Jefferson memorial idea emerged amid the economic disarray of the Great Depressionand promised new jobs.[14]The project was expected to create 5,000 jobs for three to four years.[17]Committee members began to raise public awareness by organizing fundraisers and writing pamphlets. They also engaged Congress by planning budgets and preparing bills, in addition to researching ownership of the land they had chosen, "approximately one-half mile in length  ... from Third Street east to the present elevated railroad." In January 1934, Senator Bennett Champ Clarkand Representative John Cochranintroduced to Congress an appropriation billseeking $30 million for the memorial, but the bill failed to garner support due to the large amount of money solicited. In March of the same year, joint resolutionsproposed the establishment of a federal commission to develop the memorial. Although the proposal aimed for only authorization, the bill incurred opposition because people suspected that JNEMA would later seek appropriation. On March 28 the Senate bill was reported out, and on April 5 it was turned over to the House Library Committee, which later reported favorably on the bills. On June 8, both the Senate and House bills were passed. On June 15, President Franklin D. Rooseveltsigned the bill into law, instituting the United States Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission. The commission comprised 15 members, chosen by Roosevelt, the House, the Senate, and JNEMA. It first convened on December 19 in St. Louis, where members examined the project and its planned location.[14] Meanwhile, in December, the JNEMA discussed organizing an architectural competition to determine the design of the monument. Local architect Louis LeBeaume had drawn up competition guidelines by January 1935.[14]On April 13, 1935, the commission certified JNEMA's project proposals, including memorial perimeters, the "historical significance" of the memorial, the competition, and the $30 million budget.[14]Between February and April, the Missouri State Legislaturepassed an act allowing the use of bondsto facilitate the project. On April 15, then GovernorGuy B. Parksigned it into law. Dickmann and Smith applied for funding from two New Deal agencies—the Public Works Administration(headed by Harold Ickes) and the Works Progress Administration(headed by Harry Hopkins). On August 7, both Ickes and Hopkins assented to the funding requests, each promising $10 million, and said that the National Park Service(NPS) would manage the memorial.[18]A local bond issue election granting $7.5 million for the memorial's development was held on September 10 and passed.[14][17] On December 21, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order7253[15]to approve the memorial,[19]allocating the 82-acre area as the first National Historic Site.[15][16][18]The order also appropriated $3.3 million through the WPA and $3.45 million through the PWA[20]($6.75 million in total).[17]The motivation of the project was two-fold—commemorating westward expansion and creating jobs.[14]Some taxpayers began to file suits to block the construction of the monument, which they called a "boondoggle".[16] Initial planning (1936–1939)[edit]Using the 1935 grant of $6.75 million and $2.25 million in city bonds,[17]the NPS acquired the buildings within the historic site—through condemnationrather than purchase—and demolished them. By September 1938, condemnation was complete. The condemnation was subject to many legal disputes which culminated on January 27, 1939, when the United States Circuit Court of Appealsruled that condemnation was valid. A total of $6.2 million was distributed to land owners on June 14.[15]Demolition commenced on October 9, 1939, when Dickmann extracted three bricks from a vacant warehouse.[21] Led by Paul Peters, adversaries of the memorial delivered to Congress a leaflet titled "Public Necessity or Just Plain Pork". The JNEMA's lawyer, Bon Geaslin, believed that the flyers did not taint the project, but motivated members of Congress to find out more about the same. Although Representative John Cochran wanted to ask Congress to approve more funds, Geaslin believed the association should "keep a low profile, maintaining its current position during this session of Congress". He advised the association to "get a good strong editorial in one of the papers to the effect that a small group of tenants ... is soliciting funds [to fight] the proposed improvement, and stating that these efforts do not represent the consensus of opinion in St. Louis ... , and pointing out that such obstructions should be condemned".[21] Congress's reduction in spending made it impossible for the allocated funds to be obtained. NPS responded that the city would reduce its contribution if the federal government did. It also asserted that the funds were sanctioned by an executive order, but superintendent John Nagle pointed out that what "one Executive Order does, another can undo". In March 1936, Representative Cochran commented during a House meeting that he "would not vote for any measure providing for building the memorial or allotting funds to it". Geaslin found Cochran's statements to be a greater hindrance to the project than Paul Peters' opposition, for Congress might have Cochran's opinions as representative of public opinion.[21] Peters and other opponents asked Roosevelt to rescind Executive Order 7253 and to redirect the money to the American Red Cross. Smith impugned their motives, accusing them of being "opposed to anything that is ever advanced in behalf of the city."[21]In February 1936, an editorial written by Paul W. Ward in The Nationdenounced the project.[22]Smith was infuriated, fearing the impact of attacks from a prestigious magazine, and wanted "to jump on it strong with hammer and tongs". William Allen White, a renowned newspaper editor, advised Smith not to fret.[21] Because the Mississippi River played an essential role in establishing St. Louis's identity as the gateway to the west, a memorial commemorating it should be near the river. Railroad tracks that had been constructed in the 1930s on the leveeobstructed views of the riverfront from the memorial site.[15]When Ickes declared that the railway must be removed before he would allocate funds for the memorial,[21]President of the St. Louis Board of Public Service Baxter Brown suggested that "a new tunnel ... conceal the relocated tracks and re-grading of the site to elevate it over the tunnel. These modifications would eliminate the elevated and surface tracks and open up the views to the river."[15]Although rejected by NPS architect Charles Peterson, Brown's proposal formed the basis for the ultimate settlement.[21] Design competition (1945–1948)[edit]... [T]he steel monument one sees today—carbon steel on the interior, stainless steel on the exterior, and concrete in-filling, with an equilateral-triangle-shaped section that tapers from 54 to 17 feet at the top, and the concept of a skin that is also structure—is in essence [Saarinen's] competition design.[23]—Eero Saarinen: Shaping the Future, 2006 In November 1944, Smith discussed with Newton Drury, the National Park Service Director, the design of the memorial, asserting that the memorial should be "transcending in spiritual and aesthetic values", best represented by "one central feature: a single shaft, a building, an arch, or something else that would symbolize American culture and civilization."[24] The idea of an architectural competition to determine the design of the memorial was favored at the JNEMA's inaugural meeting. They planned to award cash for the best design.[16]In January 1945, the JNEMA officially announced a two-stage design competition that would cost $225,000 to organize. Smith and the JNEMA struggled to raise the funds, garnering only a third of the required total by June 1945.[a]Then mayor Aloys Kaufmannfeared that the lack of public support would lead officials to abandon hope in the project. The passage of a year brought little success, and Smith frantically underwrotethe remaining $40,000 in May 1946. By June, Smith found others to assume portions of his underwriting, with $17,000 remaining under his sponsorship. In February 1947, the underwriters were compensated, and the fund stood over $231,199.[24] Local architect Louis LaBeaume prepared a set of specifications for the design, and architect George Howewas chosen to coordinate the competition. On May 30, 1947, the contest officially opened. The seven-member jury that would judge the designs comprised Charles Nagel Jr., Richard Neutra, Roland Wank, William Wurster, LaBeaume, Fiske Kimball, and S. Herbert Hare.[26]The competition comprised two stages—the first to narrow down the designers to five and the second to single out one architect and his design.[24]The design intended to include:[27] (a) an architectural memorial or memorials to Jefferson; dealing (b) with preservation of the site of Old St. Louis—landscaping, provision of an open-air campfire theater, reerection or reproduction of a few typical old buildings, provision of a Museum interpreting the Westward movement; (c) a living memorial to Jefferson's 'vision of greater opportunities for men of all races and creeds;' (d) recreational facilities, both sides of the river; and (e) parking facilities, access, relocation of railroads, placement of an interstate highway. Saarinen working with a model of the arch in 1957Saarinen's team included himself as designer, J. Henderson Barr as associate designer, and Dan Kileyas landscape architect, as well as Lily Swann Saarinenas sculptor and Alexander Girardas painter. In the first stage of the competition, Carl Millesadvised Saarinen to change the bases of each leg to triangles instead of squares. Saarinen said that he "worked at first with mathematical shapes, but finally adjusted it according to the eye." At submission, Saarinen's plans laid out the arch at 569 feet (173 m) tall and 592 feet (180 m) wide from center to center of the triangle bases.[23] On September 1, 1947, submissions for the first stage were received by the jury. The submissions were labeled by numbers only, and the names of the designers were kept anonymous. Upon four days of deliberation, the jury narrowed down the 172 submissions, which included Saarinen's father Eliel,[25]to five finalists, and announced the corresponding numbers to the media on September 27. Saarinen's design (#144) was among the finalists, and comments written on it included "relevant, beautiful, perhaps inspired would be the right word" (Roland Wank) and "an abstract form peculiarly happy in its symbolism" (Charles Nagel). Hare questioned the feasibility of the design but appreciated the thoughtfulness behind it.[24]Local St. Louis architect Harris Armstrongwas also one of the finalists.[28]The secretary who sent out the telegrams informing finalists of their advancement mistakenly sent one to Eliel rather than Eero. The family celebrated with champagne, and two hours later, a competition representative called to correct the mistake. Eliel "'broke out a second bottle of champagne' to toast his son."[25] They proceeded to the second stage, and each was given a $10,069 prize. Saarinen changed the height of the arch from 580 feet to 630 feet (190 m)and wrote that the arch symbolized "the gateway to the West, the national expansion, and whatnot."[23]He wanted the landscape surrounding the arch to "be so densely covered with trees that it will be a forest-like park, a green retreat from the tension of the downtown city," according to The New York Timesarchitectural critic Aline Bernstein Louchheim[c]The deadline for the second stage arrived on February 10, 1948, and on February 18, the jury chose Saarinen's design unanimously,[24]praising its "profoundly evocative and truly monumental expression."[31]The following day,[26]during a formal dinner at Statler Hotelthat the finalists and the media attended, Wurster pronounced Saarinen the winner of the competition and awarded the checks—$40,000 to his team[23]and $50,000 to Saarinen.[32]The competition was the first major architectural design that Saarinen developed unaided by his father.[24] On May 25, the United States Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission endorsed the design.[26]Later, in June, the NPS approved the proposal.[23]Representative H. R. Gross, however, opposed the allocation of federal funds for the arch's development.[33] The design drew varied responses. In a February 29, 1969, The New York Times article, Louchheim praised the arch's design as "a modern monument, fitting, beautiful and impressive."[34]Some local residents likened it to a "stupendous hairpin and a stainless steel hitching post." The most aggressive criticism emerged from Gilmore D. Clarke,[35]whose February 26, 1948,[16]letter compared Saarinen's arch to an arch imagined by fascist Benito Mussolini, rendering the arch a fascist symbol. This allegation of plagiarism ignited fierce debates among architects about its validity. Douglas Haskellfrom New York wrote that "The use of a common form is not plagiarism ... [T]his particular accusation amounts to the filthiest smear that has been attempted by a man highly placed in the architectural profession in our generation."[16]Wurster and the jury refuted the charges, arguing that "the arch form was not inherently fascist but was indeed part of the entire history of architecture."[31]Saarinen considered the opposition absurd, asserting, "It's just preposterous to think that a basic form, based on a completely natural figure, should have any ideological connection."[35] By January 1951, Saarinen created 21 "drawings, including profiles of the Arch, scale drawings of the museums and restaurants, various parking proposals, the effect of the levee-tunnel railroad plan on the Arch footings, the Arch foundations, the Third Street Expressway, and the internal and external structure of the Arch." Fred Severudmade calculations for the arch's structure.[36] Railroad agreement (1949–1958)[edit]Several proposals were offered for moving the railroad tracks, including: Bates-Ross. Tracks would cross the memorial site diagonally in a tunnel.Bowen. Similar to Bates-Ross proposal.Hill-Tunnel. Supported by Saarinen and NPS engineer Julian Spotts, it would route the tracks in a tunnel below Second and First Streets. Saarinen further said that if the tracks passed between the memorial and the river, he would withdraw his participation.La Beaume-Terminal. Opposed by Saarinen and the NPS, it would lay "three tracks on a contained fill along the lines of the elevated tracks."Levee-Tunnel. Proposed by Frank J. McDevitt, president of the St. Louis Board of Public Service, it would lower the tracks into a tunnel concealed by walls and landscaping.On July 7, 1949, in Mayor Joseph Darst's office, city officials chose the Levee-Tunnel plan, rousing JNEMA members who held that the decision had been pressed through when Smith was away on vacation. Darst notified Secretary of the Interior Julius Krugof the city's selection. Krug planned to meet with Smith and JNEM but canceled the meeting and resigned on November 11. His successor, Oscar L. Chapman, rescheduled the meeting for December 5 in Washington with delegates from the city government, JNEM, railroad officials, and Federal government. A day after the conference, they ratified a memorandum of understandingabout the plan: "The five tracks on the levee would be replaced by three tracks, one owned by the Missouri Pacific Railroad(MPR) and two by the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis(TRRA) proceeding through a tunnel not longer than 3,000 feet. The tunnel would be approximately fifty feet west of the current elevated line." It would also have an overhead clearance of 18 feet (5.5 m), lower than the regular requirement of 22 feet (6.7 m). Chapman approved the document on December 22, 1949, and JNEM garnered the approval of the Missouri Public Service Commissionon August 7, 1952.[36] Efforts to appropriate congressional funds began in January 1950 but were delayed until 1953 by the Korean War's depletion of federal funds.[36] In August 1953, Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seatondeclared that the Department of the Interior and the railroads should finalize the agreement on the new route. In October, NPS and the TRRA decided that the TRRA would employ a surveyor endorsed by Spotts "to survey, design, estimate, and report on" the expenses of shifting the tracks. They chose Alfred Benesch and Associates, which released its final report on May 3, 1957. The firm estimated that the two proposals would cost more than expected: more than $11 million and $14 million, respectively. NPS director Conrad Wirthenjoined Saarinen to make small modifications to the design. In October, Saarinen redrafted the plans, suggesting:[37] [the placement of] the five sets of railroad tracks into a shortened tunnel 100 feet west of the trestle, with the tracks being lowered sixteen feet. This did not mean that the memorial would be cut off from the river, however, for Saarinen provided a 960-foot-long (290 m) tunnel to be placed over the railroad where a "grand staircase" rose from the levee to the Arch. At the north and south ends of the park, 150-foot tunnels spanned the tracks, and led to the overlook museum, restaurant, and stairways down to the levee. Saarinen designed a subterranean visitor center the length of the distance between the legs, to include two theaters and an entrance by inward-sloping ramps. On November 29, involved interests signed another memorandum of understanding approving Saarinen's rework; implementing it would cost about $5.053 million. On March 10, 1959, mayor Raymond Tuckerproposed that they drop "the tunnel idea in favor of open cuts roofed with concrete slabs," which would cost $2.684 million, $1.5 million less than the cost of the approved plan. On May 12, 1958, Tucker, TRRA president Armstrong Chinn, and Missouri Pacific Railroad president Russell Dearmont entered a written agreement: "The TRRA would place $500,000 in escrow for the project, and the city [would] sell $980,000 of the 1935 bonds to match the Federal contribution." Director Wirth and Secretary Seaton approved the plan on June 2.[37] In July 1953, Representative Leonor Sullivanintroduced H.R. 6549, a bill authorizing the allocation of no more than $5 million to build the arch. After much negotiation, both houses of Congress approved the bill in May 1954, and on May 18, 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhowersigned the bill into law as Public Law 361. Congress could not afford to appropriate the funds in 1955, so association president William Crowdus resorted to asking the Rockefellerand Ford Foundationsfor $10 million. The foundations denied the request because their function as private foundationsdid not include funding national memorials. In 1956, Congress appropriated $2.64 million to be used to move the railroad tracks. The remainder of the authorized appropriation was requested via six congressional bills, introduced on July 1, 1958, that revised Public Law 361 to encompass the cost of the entire memorial, increasing federal funds by $12.25 million. A month later the Department of the Interior and the Bureau of the Budgetendorsed the bill, and both houses of Congress unanimously passed the bill. Eisenhower signed it into law on September 7. The NPS held off on appropriating the additional funds, as it planned to use the already-appropriated funds to initiate the railroad work.[37] Final preparations (1959–1968)[edit]3-D model of the ArchSaarinen and city functionaries collaborated to zonebuildings near the arch. In April 1959, real estate developer Lewis Kitchen decided to construct two 40-level edifices across from the arch. In July, after the plan was condemned for its potential obstruction of the arch, Kitchen discussed the issue with officials. A decision was delayed for several months because Saarinen had yet to designate the arch's height, projected between 590 and 630 feet (180 and 190 m). By October, Mayor Tucker and Director Wirth resolved to restrict the height of buildings opposite the arch to 275 feet (84 m) (about 27 levels), and the city stated that plans for buildings opposite the arch would require its endorsement. Kitchen then decreased the height of his buildings, while Saarinen increased that of the arch.[38] Moving the railroad tracks was the first stage of the project. On May 6, 1959, after an official conference, the Public Service Commission called for ventilation to accompany the tunnel's construction, which entailed "placing 3,000 feet of dual tracks into a tunnel 105 feet west of the elevated railroad, along with filling, grading, and trestle work." Eight bids for the work were reviewed on June 8 in the Old Courthouse, and the MacDonald Construction Co. of St. Louis[5]won with a bid of $2,426,115, less than NPS's estimate of the cost. At 10:30 a.m. on June 23, 1959, the groundbreakingceremony occurred; Tucker spaded the first portion of earth. Wirth and Dickmann delivered speeches.[38] The NPS acquired the $500,000 in escrow and transferred it to MacDonald to begin building the new tracks. In August, demolition of the Old Rock House[d]was complete, with workers beginning to excavate the tunnel. In November, they began shaping the tunnel's walls with concrete. Twenty-nine percent of the construction was completed by March and 95% by November. On November 17, trains began to use the new tracks. June 1962 was the projected date of fruition.[38] On May 16, 1959, the Senate appropriations subcommitteereceived from St. Louis legislators a request for $2.4911 million, of which it granted only $133,000. Wirth recommended that they reseek the funds in January 1960.[38] On March 10, 1959, Regional Director Howard Baker received $888,000 as the city's first subsidy for the project. On December 1, 1961, $23,003,150 in total had been authorized, with $19,657,483 already appropriated—$3,345,667 remained not yet appropriated.[38] Construction[edit]The bidding date, originally December 20, 1961, was postponed to January 22, 1962, to clarify the details of the arch construction.[e]About 50 companies that had requested the construction requirements received bidding invitations. Extending from $11,923,163 to $12,765,078, all four bids exceeded the engineer estimate of $8,067,000. Wirth had a committee led by George Hartzogdetermine the validity of the bids in light of the government's conditions. Following a meeting with the bidders, the committee affirmed the bids' reasonableness, and Wirth awarded the lowest bidder, MacDonald Construction Co. of St. Louis,[5]the contract for the construction of the arch and the visitor center. On March 14, 1962, he signed the contract and received from Tucker $2.5 million, the city's subsidy for the phase. MacDonald reduced its bid $500,000 to $11,442,418.[38]The Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company served as the subcontractor for the shell of the arch.[16] In 1959 and 1960, ground was broken,[40]and in 1961, the foundation of the structure was laid.[13]Construction of the arch itself began on February 12, 1963, as the first steel triangle on the south leg was eased into place.[16]These steel triangles, which narrowed as they spiraled to the top, were raised into place by a group of cranes and derricks.[41]The arch was assembled of 142[42]12-foot-long (3.7 m) prefabricatedstainless steel sections. Once in place, each section had its double-walled skin filled with concrete, prestressedwith 252 tension bars.[43]In order to keep the partially completed legs steady, a scissors trusswas placed between them at 530 feet (160 m), later removed as the derricks were taken down.[44]The whole endeavor was expected to be completed by fall 1964, in observance of St. Louis's bicentennial.[11][12][45] Contractor MacDonald Construction Co. arranged a 30-foot (9.1 m) tower for spectators[46]and provided recorded accounts of the undertaking.[47]In 1963, a million people went to observe the progress, and by 1964, local radio stations began to broadcast when large slabs of steel were to be raised into place.[17]St. Louis Post-Dispatchphotographer Art Witmandocumented the construction for the newspaper's Sunday supplement Pictures, his longest and most noted assignment.[48]He visited the construction site frequently from 1963 to 1967 recording of every stage of progress. With assistant Renyold Ferguson, he crawled along the catwalks with the construction workers up to 190m above the ground.[49]He was the only news photographer on permanent assignment at the construction, with complete access. He primarily worked with slide film, but also used the only Panox camera in St. Louis to create panoramic photographs covering 140 degrees. Witman's pictures of the construction are now housed in the State Historical Society of Missouri. The project manager of MacDonald Construction Co., Stan Wolf, said that a 62-story building was easier to build than the arch: "In a building, everything is straight up, one thing on top of another. In this arch, everything is curved."[13] Delays and lawsuits[edit]Arch construction in June 1965.Although an actuarialfirm predicted thirteen workers would die while building the arch, no workers were killed during the monument's construction.[50]However, construction of the arch was still often delayed by safety checks, funding uncertainties, and legal disputes.[51] Civil rights activists regarded the construction of the arch as a token of racial discrimination. On July 14, 1964, during the workers' lunchtime, civil rights protesters Percy Green and Richard Daly, both members of Congress of Racial Equality, climbed up 125-feet on the north leg of the arch to "expose the fact that federal funds were being used to build a national monument that was racially discriminating against black contractors and skilled black workers." As the pair disregarded demands to get off, protesters on the ground demanded that at least 10% of the skilled jobs belong to African Americans. Four hours later Green and Daly dismounted from the arch, to charges of "trespassing, peace disturbance, and resisting arrest."[52][53]This incident inter alia spurred the United States Department of Justiceto file the first pattern or practicecase against AFL–CIO under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, on February 4, 1966, but the department later called off the charges.[54]The 1966 lawsuit was an attempt by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCC) to desegregate building-trade unions nationwide. Many technical building unions had little or no African-American representation into the mid-1960s. During Lyndon Johnson's presidency, the federal government recognized the need for more integration in all levels of society and started enforcing equal employment opportunity through federally funded job contracts.[54] In 1964, the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company of Warren, Pennsylvania sued MacDonald for $665,317 for tax concerns. In 1965, NPS requested that Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel remove the prominent letters "P-D-M" (its initials) from a creeper derrick used for construction, contending that it was promotional and violated federal law with regards to advertising on national monuments. Although Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel initially refused to pursue what it considered a precarious venture, the company relented after discovering that leaving the initials would cost $225,000 and after that, $42,000 per month,[55]and the NPS dropped its lawsuit.[16] On October 26, 1965, the International Association of Ironworkersdelayed work to ascertain that the arch was safe. After NPS director Kenneth Chapman gave his word that conditions were "perfectly safe," construction resumed on October 27.[56]After the discovery of 16 defects, the tram was also delayed from running. The Bi-State Development Agencyassessed that it suffered losses of $2,000 for each day the trains were stagnant.[57] On January 7, 1966, members of AFL–CIOdeserted their work on the visitor center,[57]refusing to work with plumbers affiliated with Congress of Industrial Unions(CIU), which represented black plumbers. A representative of AFL–CIO said, "This policy has nothing to do with race. Our experience is that these CIU members have in the past worked for substandard wages."[58]CIU applied to the National Labor Relations Board(NLRB) for an injunctionthat required the AFL–CIO laborers to return to work. On February 7, Judge John Keating Reganruled that AFL–CIO workers had participated in a secondary boycott. By February 11, AFL–CIO resumed work on the arch, and an AFL–CIO contractor declared that ten African Americans were apprenticed for arch labor. The standstill in work lasted a month.[53]Considering how large Federal projects often "go haywire", Secretary of WarNewton D. Bakersaid, "This memorial will be like a cathedral; built slowly but surely."[17] Topping out and dedication[edit]The dedication plaquePresident Lyndon B. Johnsonand Mayor Alfonso J. Cervantesdecided on a date for the topping out ceremony, but the arch had not been completed by then. The ceremony date was reset to October 17, 1965, and workers strained to meet the deadline, taking double shifts, but by October 17, the arch was still not complete. The chairman of the ceremony anticipated the ceremony to be held on October 30, a Saturday, to allow 1,500 schoolchildren, whose signatures were to be placed in a time capsule, to attend. Ultimately, PDM set the ceremony date to October 28.[16] The time capsule, containing the signatures of 762,000 students and others, was welded into the keystonebefore the final piece was set in place.[59]On October 28, the arch was topped outas then Vice PresidentHubert Humphreyobserved from a helicopter.[60]A Catholic priest and a rabbi prayed over the keystone,[32]a 10-short-ton (9.1 t), eight-foot-long (2.4 m) triangular section.[61]It was slated to be inserted at 10:00 a.m. local timebut was done 30 minutes early[32]because thermal expansionhad constricted the 8.5-foot (2.6 m) gap at the top[61]by 5 inches (13 cm).[60]To mitigate this, workers used fire hoses to spray water on the surface of the south leg to cool it down[51]and make it contract.[60]The keystone was inserted in 13 minutes,[32]only 6 inches (15 cm) remained. For the next section, a hydraulic jackhad to pry apart the legs six feet (1.8 m). The last section was left only 2.5 feet (0.76 m).[61]By noon, the keystone was secured.[32]Some filmmakers, in hope that the two legs would not meet, had chronicled every phase of construction.[62] The Gateway Arch was expected to open to the public by 1964, but in 1967 the public relations agency stopped forecasting the opening date.[57]The arch's visitor center opened on June 10, 1967, and the tram began operating on July 24.[10] The arch was dedicated by Humphrey on May 25, 1968.[63]He declared that the arch was "a soaring curve in the sky that links the rich heritage of yesterday with the richer future of tomorrow"[64]and brings a "new purpose" and a "new sense of urgency to wipe out every slum." "Whatever is shoddy, whatever is ugly, whatever is waste, whatever is false, will be measured and condemned" in comparison to the Gateway Arch. About 250,000 people were expected to attend, but rain canceled the outdoor activities.[63]The ceremony had to be transferred into the visitor center.[64][f]After the dedication, Humphrey crouched beneath an exit as he waited for the rain to subside so he could walk to his vehicle.[63] After completion[edit]The project did not provide 5,000 jobs as expected—as of June 1964, workers numbered fewer than 100. The project did, however, incite other riverfront restoration efforts, totaling $150 million. Building projects included a 50,000-seat sports stadium, a 30-story hotel, several office towers, four parking garages, and an apartment complex.[17]The idea of a Disneyland amusement park that included "synthetic riverboat attractions" was considered but later abandoned.[65][66]The developers hoped to use the arch as a commercial catalyst, attracting visitors who would use their services.[17]One estimate found that since the 1960s, the arch has incited almost $503 million worth of construction.[67] In June 1976, the memorial was finalized by federal allocations—"the statue of Thomas Jefferson was unveiled, the Museum of Westward Expansion was previewed, a theater under the Arch was dedicated in honor of Mayor Raymond Tucker and the catenary-like curving staircases from the Arch down to the levee were built."[16] Characteristics[edit]Physical characteristics[edit]The windows of the observation deck are located around the apex of the arch.Both the width and height of the arch are 630 feet (192 m).[7][60]The arch is the tallest memorial in the United States[4]and the tallest stainless steel monument in the world.[68] The cross-sections of the arch's legs are equilateral triangles, narrowing from 54 feet (16 m) per side at the bases to 17 feet (5.2 m) per side at the top.[69]Each wall consists of a stainless steelskin covering a sandwich of two carbon-steel walls with reinforced concretein the middle from ground level to 300 feet (91 m), with carbon steelto the peak.[45][70]The arch is hollow to accommodate a unique tram system that takes visitors to an observation deck at the top.[11] The structural loadis supported by a stressed-skindesign.[71]Each leg is embedded in 25,980 short tons (23,570 t) of concrete 44 feet (13 m) thick[60]and 60 feet (18 m) deep.[72]Twenty feet (6.1 m) of the foundation is in bedrock.[72]The arch is resistant to earthquakes[73]and is designed to sway up to 18 inches (46 cm) in either direction,[74]while withstanding winds up to 150 miles per hour (240 km/h).[75]The structure weighs 42,878 short tons (38,898 t), of which concrete composes 25,980 short tons (23,570 t); structural steel interior, 2,157 short tons (1,957 t); and the stainless steel panels that cover the exterior of the arch, 886 short tons (804 t).[63]This amount of stainless steel is the most used in any one project in history.[68][75]The base of each leg at ground level had to have an engineering toleranceof 1⁄64 inch (0.40 mm) or the two legs would not meet at the top.[7] Mathematical elements[edit]The arch is a weighted catenary—its legs are wider than its upper section.The geometric form of the structure was set by mathematical equations provided to Saarinen by Hannskarl Bandel. Bruce Detmers and other architects expressed the geometric form in blueprints with this equation:[76]

Source: global financial news network,Welcome to reprint and share.

Relevant Contents

Some netizens have made a pointed comment,What else are you waiting for?}Come On

Must fill

Must fill

Must fill

Remember me, you don't need to re-enter your personal information next time you reply